Endometriosis is a chronic condition where the uterine lining tissue develops outside the uterus. The tissue may have grown on the ovaries or fallopian tubes, the outer wall of the uterus, the intestines, or other organs in the belly. Sometimes, in rare cases, they spread to areas beyond the belly. With each menstrual cycle, these tissues go through the same growing, breaking down, and bleeding that the uterine lining goes through. When this happens, endometriosis pain starts as a mild discomfort for a few days before the menstrual period and then usually is gone by the time the period ends. If an implant grows in a sensitive area, it can cause constant pain or pain during certain activities, such as sex, exercise, or bowel movements.
Some possible causes of endometriosis include the following:
Treatment for endometriosis focuses on stopping the painful symptoms and preventing infertility. The treatment options will depend on how severe the symptoms are and whether the patient wants to get pregnant. If the only symptom is pain, hormone therapy to lower the body's estrogen levels can be used to reduce it. If pregnancy is an issue, surgery, infertility treatment, or both may be necessary. Treatment is a personal decision that should be discussed with the doctor.